Jumat, 17 Desember 2010

[History] Raden Intan II, the National Hero

Raden Intan II was one of the national heroes from Lampung Province who led people of Lampung in bearing arms against Dutch colonialism. Raden Intan II was born in 1831. He was the son of Radin Imba II and grandson of Raden Intan I. Raden Intan I was one of Fatahillah descendants - spreader of Islam in Banten around XVI century. Fatahillah married to Princess Sinar Alam of Lampung.

Lampung was one of the areas that have the effect power from Banten since before the Dutch arrived. Since Lampung was rich of spices, the Dutch had the desire to gain control of Lampung. But the arrival of the Dutch in Lampung was welcomed by people of Lampung's resistance.

Resistance to the Dutch first led by Raden Intan I. Raden Intan I (1751 - 1828) was the ruler of Keratuan Darah Putih or Negara Ratu, based in Kahuripan (now Penengahan, South Lampung). For the Dutch, Raden Intan I regarded as a stubborn person. He tended to resist any policy made by the Dutch government, such as the monopoly of pepper trade.

The power of Keratuan Darah Putih led by Raden Intan I was recognized by the Governor-General of the Dutch, H.W. Deandels. This attitude was intentionally shown by the Dutch government. However, Raden Intan I took the steps considered very dangerous for the Dutch, such as building a friendship with Daeng Gajah of Tulang Bawang and Seputih. Raden Intan I was deliberately broke away from the relationship with the Dutch. The Dutch became aware and held a negotiation with Raden Intan I. This action was meant to strengthen the Dutch's position in Lampung. The contents of the agreements were:
1. Raden Intan I was willing to end violence and help the Dutch government.
2. Raden Intan I's position would be recognized by the Dutch government.
3. Raden Intan I would get a pension of 1,200 Gulden per year and his family would get 600 Gulden per year each.

The agreement created a peaceful atmosphere. But the peace didn't last long because the Dutch was unilaterally violated the agreement and blatantly took violent actions.

In early December 1825, the Dutch government sent a delegation to arrest Raden Intan I. However, Raden Intan I's troops attacked them and the Dutch people were overpowered. With the defeat,, Lampung state was back to normal for a while. Three years later, Raden Intan I got sick and passed away. The throne of Keratuan Darah Putih then passed to his son, Raden Imba II.

Raden Imba II, who inherited the throne, also inherited his father's personality which was anti Dutch colonialism. He established relationship with Sultan Lingga, and also with Bugis and Sulu sailors. It triggered the Dutch's awareness. They feared that Raden Imba II was preparing an army to attack the Dutch.

Apparently, the Dutch's allegation was correct, Raden Imba II with the help of local people attacked Lampung Bay (Teluk Lampung). He successfully defeated the Dutch. The Dutch suffered a great loss. Assistant Residence of the Dutch, J.A. Du Bois asked for reinforcement from Batavia. Troops from Batavia landed in Kalianda, August 8, 1832. However, Raden Imba II had left his hideout.

The battle against the Dutch once again occurred on September 9, 1932 in the area of Mount Tanggamus. But once more, Raden Imba II gained a victory. Finally, the Dutch troops led by Captain Hoffman exerted greater force. A great battle was occurred at Fort Raja Gepei. Both sides suffered great loss, but Fort Raja Gepei could be defended.

September 23, 1834, the Dutch government in Batavia sent bigger amount of troops. They destroyed and occupied the fort, but Raden Imba II managed to escape and asked for protection from Sultan of Lingga. Unfortunately, his hiding place was known and Raden Lingga was forced to extradite Raden Imbba II due to the pressure from the Dutch.

Raden Imba II finally exiled to Timor Island and passed away there. Meanwhile, his pregnant wife Ratu Mas returned to Lampung. With the death of Raden Imba II, Lampung was entirely under the power of the Dutch. For about 15 years, there weren't any uprisings in Lampung.

Ratu Mas gave birth to a son named Raden Intan II. He followed his ancestors' track being anti-colonialism. In 1850, 15 years old Raden Intan II inherited the throne of Keratuan Darah Putih. He began to repair the damaged forts and build new forts such as Fort Galah Tanah, Pematang Sentok, Kahuripan, and Salaitahunan. Defense centered in Mount Rajabasa since it's a strategic location, surrounded by several forts such as Fort Raja Gepei Cempaka and Kahuripan Lama.

Raden Intan II also built friendships with some important figures such as Singabranta, Wak Maas, Haji Wakhia, and people people of Marga Ratu and Dataran. The Dutch finally took an action, they tried to persuade Raden Intan II in exchange for forgiveness, tuition fees, and others. However, Raden Intan II rejected any kinds of persuasion.

In 1851, the Dutch sent troops to invade Fort Merambung, but they were failed. In 1953, the Dutch once again proposed a peace treaty. The proposal was accepted by Raden Intan II. But in 1856, Raden Intan II once again attacked the Dutch.

The Dutch troops in Lampung finally asked for help from Batavia. In 1856, a helping hand came under the command of Colonel Walleson and seized Sikepal Island (Teluk Tanjung Tua area). The Dutch then gave Raden Intan II and his companions an ultimatum to surrender.

From Sikepal Island, the Dutch troops prepared to attack the forts built by Raden Intan II. One by one the forts were seized by the Dutch troops. August 27, 1856 the Dutch attacked Fort Katimbang. Because firepower differences, Fort Katimbang was successfully seized buy the Dutch. Raden Intan II and his companions managed to escape.

Raden Intan II and his companions moved from one hideout to another. Frustrated Dutch decided to blindly caught Raden Intan II and his companion's family. Kiai Wakhia was captured by the Dutch and executed on September 9, 1856. In the next battle, Wak Maas was killed. Over time, finally Raden Intan II struggled alone.

Because it was difficult for the Dutch to capture Raden Intan II, they ended up doing tricks. The Dutch managed to persuade the Head of Kampung Tataan Udik, Raden Ngarupat, to deceive Raden Intan II by inviting him to dinner. October 5, 1856, Raden Intan II was ambushed by the Dutch troops in Raden Ngarupat's house. He immediately fought against the troops. But because of the power imbalance, finally Raden Intan II died. Raden Intan II was really a hero who fought against the Dutch colonialism until the end.

Perjuangan Raden Intan dan Raden Imba melawan VOC di Lampung (1825 – 1860) - http://indonesianvoices.com

Pahlawan Nasional Radin Inten II – Dinas Pendidikan Propinsi Lampung, 2004

My Dad used to work in Education Department of Lampung Province, Museum and History Div. My father told me that he heard from someone who's a historian of Lampung... Raden Intan II once asked his mother "What's the remedy of shame, Mother?" "Dead!" replied his mother. Raden Intan II felt humiliated by the colonizers. He struggled until the end against the Dutch colonialism.

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abilyudi mengatakan...

kisah perjuangan yan hebat, smoga dapat memupuk nasionalisme kita.

JAMBI HARI INI mengatakan...

salam kenal..Raden Intan, klw di jambi pahlwnnya Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin.

Heni Puspita mengatakan...

@abilyudi > amiin :)
@JAMBI HARI INI > & ntah berapa banyak para pahlawan Indonesia yang ga kita kenal namanya :)

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