Selasa, 22 Februari 2011

[Level 1, Lesson 4] Occupations

Talk about what you do

Milo: What do you do?
Gary: I'm an architect. And you?
Milo: I'm a doctor.

Singular statement

Affirmative statements

I am Toby. / I'm Toby.
You are an engineer. / You're an engineer.
He is a teacher. / He's a teacher.
She is a nurse. / She's a nurse.

Negative statements

I am not Tony. / I'm not Tony.
You are not an architect. / You're not an architect.
He is not a student. / He's not a student.
She is not a doctor. / She's not a doctor.

Singular and plural nouns

Singular nouns

a chef
an athlete

Plural nouns

2 chefs
3 athletes

Plural statements

Affirmative statements

We are lawyers. / We're lawyers.
You are flight attendants. / You're flight attendants.
They are musicians. / They're musicians.

Negative statements

We are not chefs. / We're not chefs.
You are not pilots. / You're not pilots.
They are not writers. / They're not writers.

Yes / no questions and short answers

Are you Laura? Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.
Is he a manager? Yes, he is. / No, he's not.
Is Manda a teacher? Yes, she is. / No, she's not.
Are you students? Yes, we are. / No, we're not.
Are they singers? Yes, they are. / No, they're not.
Are they Bob and Sue? Yes, they are. / No, they're not.
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[Level 1, Lesson 3] Asking for and Giving Information

Tell someone your first and last name

Receptionist: What's your last name, please?
Mr. Wong: Tom.
Receptionist: And your first name?
Mr. Wong: My first name? Tom.
Receptionist: Thank you, Mr. Wong.
Mr. Wong: You're welcome.

Get your partner's address, e-mail address, or phone number

John: What's your phone number?
Mike: 523-6620.
John: 523-6620.
Mike: That's right.

Information questions with What

What's your last name?     Jackson.
What's her phone number?     57-34-0078.
What's his first name?     Mike.
What's you e-mail address?
What's their address?     15 Arabella Street, Maracaibo, Venezuela
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[Level 1, Lesson 2] Alphabet and Spelling

Listen to an English speaker recite the alphabet in English HERE.

Spell a name

Mr. Jones: Hello. I'm Jack Jones.
Ms. Green: Excuse Me?
Mr. Jones: Jack Jones.
Ms. Green: How do you spell that?
Mr. Jones: J-O-N-E-S

Proper nouns and common nouns

Proper nouns

The names of people and places are proper nouns. Use a capital letter to begin a proper noun.

     Aiden Lee     Salt Lake City     Los Angeles

Common nouns
Other nouns are common nouns. Use a lower-case letter to begin a common noun.

     photographer     teacher     doctor     woman
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[Level 1, Lesson 1] Greetings and Introductions

Hi, it's me again. I'm back after a month hiatus. I've been busy taking care of some other business including trying to make myself healthier. Unfortunately I had to undergo a surgery last Monday, but I guess I'm ready for a post or two. I want to start learning English again, start from the basic level. Fighting!
Introduce Yourself

Sam: Hi. I'm Nathan.
Nathan: Hi, Sam. I'm Sam.
Sam: Nice to meet you, Nathan.
Nathan: Nice to meet you, too.

Good morning.
Good afternoon.
Good evening.

Nice to meet you.
Glad to meet you.
It's a pleasure to meet you.

Introduce People

Dana: Tim, this is Lily. Lily's my classmate.
Tim: Hi, Lily.
Lily: Hi, Tim. Nice to meet you.
Tim: Nice to meet you, too.

Greet People

Lee: Hi, Emily. How are you?
Emily: Fine, thanks. And you?
Lee: I'm fine.

How are you?
How's everything?
How's it going?

I'm fine.
Not bad.

Say Good-bye
Carla: Good-bye, Andy.
Andy: Good-bye, Carla.
Carla: See you tomorrow.
Andy: OK. See you!

Ways to say good-bye:
See you later.
See you tomorrow.
Take care.
Good night.

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Senin, 21 Februari 2011

[FCE] Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous

Past Continuous

We use Past Continuous (past form of be + -ing) to talk about something which was in progress during a period of time in the past:

I was listening to the news on television at nine o’clock last night.
We use it to give background information:

It was pouring with rain and she was wondering what to do.
We also use it the Past Simple to say that something happened in the middle of something else:

I slept when my friend called.
I was sleeping when my friend called.

Past Perfect

The Past Perfect (had + past participle) is the past form of the Present Prefect. We use it to talk about a past event which happened before another past event:

When I bought some fruit I went back to the beach.
When I had bought some fruit I went back to the beach.
We often use the Past Perfect with when or after:

After they had eaten, they cleared the table.
We also use the Past Perfect in indirect speech when reporting the Past Simple or Present Perfect:

‘I have found the answer.’ becomes She told us she had found the answer.
Compare the Past Perfect and the Past Simple:

When I arrived at the party, Mary left. (= I arrived and then Mary left)
When I arrived at the party, Mary had left. (= Mary left and then I arrived)

Past Perfect Continuous

The Past Perfect Continuous (had been + -ing) is the past form of the Present Perfect Continuous. We use it to talk about something which had been in progress up to the time in the past we are talking about:

They had been climbing for five hours before they reached the top of the mountain.
I had been feeling sleepy all day so I went to bed early.

Source: Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate
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[FCE] Past Simple, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous

Past Simple and Present Perfect

The Present Perfect is the tense that links the past with the present.

Past Simple (past form)
Present Perfect
(present of have + past participle)
We use the Past Simple:
We use the Present Prefect:

For past habits of states, whether continuous or repeated:
Long ago, they built most houses out of wood.
He always caught the same train.
For actions or states in the past which have a connection with the present:
They have bought a new house. (= they can now go and live in it)
It’s just started to rain. (= now, so bring the washing in)

When the result of an action or state are obvious now:
You’ve split the coffee all over my trousers – look!
They’ve polluted the river. (= the fish are dead)

For repeated actions in the past, with words like often, rarely, seldom:
He’s often been to France.
With periods of time that have finished:
I read the newspaper this morning. (= it is now afternoon or evening)
He did a lot in his short life. (= he’s dead)
With periods of time that have not finished yet:
We’ve built 20 new schools this year. (= it is still this year)
He has done a lot in his short life. (= he’s alive and young)
For finished actions with time words like a year ago, last Sunday, last week, yesterday, etc.:
Watson and Crick identified the structure of DNA in 1953.
The first modern Olympic took place in Athens more than a hundred years ago.
For actions with expressions like already, before, ever, never, often, recently, still, yet, etc.:
Rain has already ruined the tomato crops.
Have you ever seen a UFO?
We still haven’t discovered life on other planets.
They haven’t sent an astronaut to Mars yet.

The choice between the Past Simple or Present Perfect depends on whether the action links the past with the present:
She often took the bus. (= but doesn’t any more)
She has often taken the bus. (= and so she might do it again)
Regular verbs end in –in in both the past Simple and the past participle (the form we use for the Present Perfect): worked, looked, played.

Present Perfect Continuous

We use the Present Perfect Continuous (present form of have + been + -ing) to talk about actions which started in the past and which continue up to the moment of speaking. We use it especially when we are interested in the duration of the action:

I’ve been waiting for a whole hour!
The Present Perfect emphasizes the idea of completion (= the homework is finished); we use the Present Perfect Continuous to indicate that the action has lasted for a period and is incomplete. Compare:

I’ve read the newspaper today. (= I’ve finished it)
I’ve been reading the Encyclopedia Britannia. (= I haven’t finished it yet)
Notice the difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect:

Present Perfect
I’ve done my homework.

Present Perfect Continuous
I’ve been doing my homework.
We often use the Present Perfect Continuous with for and since:

Those potatoes have been boiling for and hour.
And the carrots have been boiling since three o’clock.

Source: Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate

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